Documented Health Risks of Chlorine and Other

Toxic Chemicals in Drinking Water

  • New emerging DBPs are much more genotoxic and much more cytotoxic than are currently regulated:
    The process of disinfecting water with chlorine and chloramines and other types of disinfectants generates a class of compounds in the water that are called disinfection by-products. The disinfectant reacts with the organic material in the water and generates hundreds of different compounds. Some of these are toxic, some can cause birth defects, some are genotoxic, which damage DNA, and some we know are also carcinogenic. read published article here…
  • Disinfection by-products may increase the risk of birth defects:
    Study suggests that prenatal exposure to disinfection by-products increases the risk of ventricular septal defects, cleft palate, and anencephalus. read published article here….
  • Drinking tap water disinfected with chlorine may harm fetus, study suggest:
    Drinking water disinfected by chlorine while pregnant may increase the risk of having children with heart problems, cleft palate or major brain defects, according to a study published in BioMed Central’s open access journal Environmental Health. read published article here more….
  • Chlorination disinfection byproducts in water and their association with adverse reproductive outcomes:
    Various toxicological and epidemiological studies point towards an association between trihalomethanes (THMs), one of the main DBPs and marker for total DBP load, and (low) birth weight read published article here….
  • Chlorination disinfection by-products in drinking water and the risk of adult leukemia:
    Increased risk of chronic myeloid leukemia was associated with increasing years of exposure to different chlorination disinfection published article here….
  • Assessment of the carcinogenic potential of chlorinated water:
    Chlorine organic by-products of chlorination are the chemicals of greatest concern in assessment of the carcinogenic potential of chlorinated drinking water read published article here…
  • Bladder cancer related to chlorinated and chloraminated drinking water:
    Consumers of chlorinated drinking water have a small excess of bladder cancer. Risk may have been underestimated because of confounding and misclassification of exposure status. read published article here….
  • MX is a potent mutagenic chemical formed as a byproduct of water chlorination:
    Known as mutagen X (MX), the compound is one of the most potent known mutagens in a toxic soup of disinfection by-products. Laboratory studies in 1997, Finland showed that MX’s cancer potency is estimated to be 170 times greater than chloroform and 17 times greater than bromodichloromethane.
    Epidemiological studies proved cancer risk with these mutagens, MX elicited increase in the frequency of tumor of the thyroid gland, liver and adrenal glands. 
    read published article here….
  • Chlorinated tap water associated with increase in food allergies:
    New research from Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York has now found evidence that the use of chlorine is associated with a rising number of people with food allergies. read published article here….
  • Chlorination by-products, and cancer: a meta-analysis:
    Meta-analysis suggest a positive association between consumption of chlorination by-products in drinking water and bladder and rectal cancer in humans. read published article here….
  • Chlorine-induced damage documented by neurophysiological, neuropsychological, and pulmonary testing:
    Chlorine causes acute pulmonary edema and damages airways, thus producing obliterative bronchiolitis. In the case series in this study, its adverse effects were extended to visual and central nervous system impairment. read published article here….
  • Toxicological effects of chloroform in drinking water:
    pidemiological studies indicate atoxicological effects of chloroform in drinking water possible relationship between exposure to chloroform present in chlorinated drinking water and the occurrence of bladder, large intestine, and rectum cancer. Chloroform is one of several contaminants present in drinking water…. read published article here….
  • Even Very Low Levels Of Environmental Toxins Can Damage Health:
    The researchers Donald Wigle of the University of Ottawa and Bruce Lanphear of Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, say that there are simply no safe levels of exposure to environmental toxins such as lead and trihalomethanes (found in drinking water) and they must be “virtually eliminated to protect human health.” read published article here….

Health Risks Of Pesticides In Drinking Water:

Many pesticides are neurotoxic and can cause disruptions to your neurological system and your brain. Research has linked pesticide exposure to Parkinson’s disease, raising your risk by 58 percent

  • Pesticides in tap water linked to food allergy risk:
    More people have food allergies than ever before, and a new study suggests chemicals in tap water may be partially to blame. read published article here….

Health Risks Of Monochloramine (Chloramine) In Drinking Water:

Some municipalities, like Rand Water, add Chloramine (chlorine & ammonia) as a secondary disinfection to their treatment process.

In recent studies funded and conducted by the EPA, scientists have discovered many by-products of chloramines that are cytotoxic and genotoxic. These byproducts are mutagens and have the potential to cause cancer and birth defects. Some of the known by-products are Iodoacetic Acid, Hydrazine and Nitrosamines.

  • Disinfection by-products (DBP) in drinking water treated with chloramines is the most toxic ever found:
    More people have food allergies than ever before, and a new study suggests chemicals in tap water may be partially to blame. read published article here..
  • Higher Lead Levels in Water Linked to Chloramines:
    The use of chloramines as a disinfectant has coincided with an increase in lead levels in drinking water in those systems. Lead in drinking water can be a significant health risk. read published article here….
  • Mixed with chloramine, household cleaning products form highly toxic nitrosamines, a suspected human carcinogen:
    Their laboratory research showed that when mixed with chloramine, some household cleaning products — including shampoo, dishwashing detergent and laundry detergent — formed N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), a semi-volatile organic chemical that is highly toxic and is a suspected human carcinogen. read published article here….

Health Risks Of Nitrogen in Drinking Water

  • Positive association between nitrate in drinking water and non-Hodgkin lymphoma and colorectal cancer:
    Contamination of drinking water by nitrate is an evolving public health concern since nitrate can undergo endogenous reduction to nitrite, and nitrosation of nitrites can form N-nitroso compounds, which are potent carcinogens. read published article here….
  • Epidemiology tests show a link between nitrate consumption and cancer:
    Eight human epidemiology tests in 11 countries show a link between nitrate consumption and cancer. read published article here….
  • Infants at acute risk of contacting potentially deadly methemoglobinemia:
    Nitrate contamination of drinking water is a serious and growing problem that places thousands of infants at acute risk of contacting potentially deadly methemoglobinemia. read published article here….