The Science of Health Risks In Tap Water
We believe in the necessity of research and proven facts. This section contains important scientific research and videos that has been done on drinking water.
Studies: Showering and bathing in chlorinated water
Researchers come to the chilling conclusion that our exposure to toxic chemicals in water is underestimated. Scientific research is now confirming that showering or bathing in hot chlorinated water is toxic and can cause premature aging, damage to the skin.
Toxic by-products from chlorine are also linked to cancer, heart disease, permanent DNA mutations, can aggravated respiratory conditions (nose, throat, lungs, sinuses): Asthma, bronchitis. – link to studies done…
What You Must know About Chloramine
Chloramine is a disinfectant that consists of chlorine and ammonia.
Some water utilities in South Africa, like Rand Water use chloramine in order to reduce the amount of disinfection by-products created when compared to chlorine. However, chloramines can cause their own unique problems separate from chlorine. For example, acclaimed lawyer Erin Brockovich notes that chloramines create more dangerous by-products when compared to other treatment agents like chlorine or ozone.
How Does Chloramine Get in Our Water
Chloramine is added to your water supply by the local water municipalities. It should be noted that not all water utilities introduce chloramines into their water supply. This decision is made by agencies on a case-by-case basis. In order to determine if your water contains chloramines you should contact your local water municipality directly, or check the yearly water quality report released by the utility.
Chloramine is used for the treatment of your water at the disinfection site or plant. However, chloramine is less likely than chlorine to dissipate; it stays in the water system for longer, meaning if it was added to your water supply that it will still exist in moderate levels when the water reaches the pipes in your home.
How Effective is Chloramine?
Chloramine is less likely to dissipate from a water supply than chlorine, but it has been proven to be less effective than chlorine as a disinfectant. The World Health Organization notes that chloramines are more than 2,000 times less effective than chlorine for the inactivation of rotaviruses and E. Coli.
In fact, in some communities chloramine has been shown to be less effective than chlorine in combating microorganisms that cause communicable diseases. A study published by Zierler, et al noted that the death rate for influenza and pneumonia was higher in communities that drink water treated with chloramine when compared to the same rates in communities where chlorine is the disinfectant of choice.
Toxicity of Chloramine
In addition to chloramines shifting from one form to another when influenced by environmental factors there is also a concern over the increased corrosive nature of chloramines when compared to chlorine.
Chloramine can cause rapid corrosion of the piping in and near your home, leading to higher levels of copper and lead in your water supply. This jeopardizes your water quality and can lead to negative health effects for your family.
Perhaps the most alarming fact about chloramine toxicity is the known effects chloramine vapors have on the respiratory system. Chloramines can transform into vapors in swimming pools, but can also become vapor while you take a hot shower.
Chloramine vapors can cause prolonged lung irritation and can precipitate an asthma attack, according to NHS Scotland. While the toxicity of the various forms of chloramine are still debated by scientists, the negative effects become more pronounced when chloramines are ingested in vapor form.
There are no health benefits to consuming chloramine. In fact, there are many negative health effects associated with chloramines. Once the treated water reaches your home you should filter the chloramines so you can enjoy crisp, refreshing water without these side-effects. Decide what method will best remove chloramines by considering the following:
Do Carbon Filters Remove Chloramines?
Carbon filters, quite common in water purification and filtration products, are some of the most effective tools for reducing the contaminants in your water, along with the general taste and odor associated with chloramines and DBPs.
The most common type of carbon filter in products on the market today is an activated carbon filter. This type of filter uses granular activated carbon media to effectively reduce and filter many contaminants and unwanted components of your water.
Less common is a more advanced form of carbon filtration, called catalytic activated carbon filtration. Espri Water recommend these types of filter media where municipalities use monochloramine to disinfect the water. In catalytic activated carbon filters the structure of the carbon is altered through different activation and manufacturing processes to optimize its filtration capabilities.
It is important to note that water filter systems that are NSF-certified to effectively reduce chlorine may not necessarily reduce chloramines at comparable levels. When choosing a water filtration system do not assume that chlorine reduction is the same as chloramine reduction. Read the specifications on any models you are considering ensuring that chloramines are effectively reduced with those models.
Whole House (POE) Water Filter Systems is installed where main line enters your house, and provides Clean Drinking and bathing water everywhere in your home. Main filtration media is NSF certified Coconut Shell Granular Activated Carbon (GAC). GAC is universally recognized and widely used as an effective adsorbent for a wide variety of organic contaminants, such as chlorine (99.9%), chemicals linked to cancer (THM’s, benzine), pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, volatile organic compounds (VOC’s), PCB’s, MTBE’s and hundreds of other chemical contaminants that may be present in water, bad taste, and odors from your drinking water. When water passes through it the impurities, bad tastes and odors will be absorbed by the media leaving only safe great tasting water.
Adding a 20 micron sediment filter to the system will extend the life of the carbon and keep the carbon bed and valves from fouling with sediments and rust.
How much carbon?
An important factor in contaminant removal is contact time. In other words the water being treated has to spend time with the carbon in order for the contaminants to be removed. Less carbon means less contact time as water flows through the carbon. This in turn means that contaminants will pass through the system and into your home.
Service flow of the filter is limited by the size of the tank and the nature of the medium. Some media require longer to work than others. Media are rated according to the service flow they can support by a measurement called “empty bed contact time” in filter-maker jargon. When the recommended contact time for the medium is violated by excess service flow, the filter is less effective and the life of the medium is usually shortened. It should be noted that empty bed contact time requirements are frequently violated in residential filters. For example, filter carbon in a 20″ Big Blue system has a performance limit of 1 liter per minute and a 10″ X 54″ filter has a performance limit of about 5 liters per minute, but such filters are frequently used in residential applications with much higher flow rates.
Automatic and manual backwashing (backflush)
When the filter medium is saturated with contaminants, the control valve initiates a backwash. The backwash is an operation in which water passes backward through the filter at a rapid rate. The rapid upward flow, in addition to washing away stored impurities, fluffs and resettles the medium bed, preparing it for another filtering cycle.
Systems that does not backflush are subject to decreased effectiveness in a short time. With periodic backwashes, your Whole House Water Filter will always perform at an optimum level to provide you and your family with clean, fresh tasting water.
All Espri Water’s housings are NSF Certified (Standard 42 for material requirements)
As the filter operates in the service mode, it traps and holds particles in the filter bed. Also, since water’s nature is to follow the path of least resistance, after a time it begins to cut channels through the medium. As channels or holes in the media bed form, water begins to flow around rather than through the medium. This process is called “channeling,” and it can reduce the effectiveness of the filter considerably.
Regular backwashing will prevent channeling
Chlorine and Chloramine removal
Some areas like Rand Water add ammonia to the Municipal water supply. The form it takes on is monochloramine. The problem with monochloramine is that it is much harder to remove from water than chlorine.
Our double whole house chloramine system is designed to remove chlorine, chloramines, and a broad range of chemicals to create excellent bathing water, while protecting your plumbing from the ravages of chloramines.
With these two systems combined, you will enjoy excellent, safe bathing water and perfect drinking water.
Activated carbon and KDF
The combination of Activated carbon and KDF in our water filters creates a top-quality filtration system that targets heavy metals, chemicals such as chlorine, pesticides, herbicides, THM’s, drugs, odor, taste and much more. The filters are bacteriostatic and control algae and scale as well.
No filters to replace that windup in landfills and further polluting the environment
- The biggest benefit of using a filter system that covers the entire home is that clean, filtered water emerges from every water source in the house.
- Because we buy bulk from one of the world’s largest manufacturers, you can now install a premium whole house system for the same price as a good quality under sink water filter system.
- Whole house filter not just more convenient and also cheaper in the end, with there being simply no filter to exchange regularly.
- Whole house filters are simple to use and require little maintenance. Filter media are only changed after 1 to 3 years.
- You improve the water quality for the entire home you enhance the value of your property in the case you ever want to sell.
- You will obtain the best value for your money with a whole house filter.
- A whole house water filter takes the hassle out of remembering to replace multiple cartridges all over your home on a regular basis
- Whole house filters eliminate the need to install an expensive under the counter filter
- Chlorine and other chemicals are removed as soon as they enter a home’s plumbing system and are no longer released into the air.
- When chlorine and other chemicals are removed from water used for washing, these chemicals can no longer become embedded in clothing.
- The use of a whole house water filter is the last means of protection from breakdowns in municipal water treatment and sanitation systems.